[ ESPとは ]

ESP (English for Specific Purposes)とは、「学問的背景や職業などの固有のニーズを持つことにより区別され同質性が認められ、その専門領域において職業上の目的を達成するために形成される集団である『ディスコース・コミュニティ』の内外において、明確かつ具体的な目的をもって英語を使用するための言語研究、およびその言語教育」である(深山他2000)。ESPにおいては、英語の使用方法は次の2種類が存在する。第一に、英語の使用例はディスコース・コミュニティの中から提示されるが、実際に対象となるのはディスコース・コミュニティ外の一般人という場合である。例としてはホテルでの航空会社などの接客や、医者と患者の談話などである。後者の例としては、ディスコース・コミュニティ内で英語が「コミュニケーション活動の一環として機能」するだけでなく、学会発表などを通して「新たな知識を構築する」場合があげられる。

   学習者の選んだ学術上の専門分野でやっていける能力を言語学習の主要な目標とする(EAP: English for Academic Purposes)と、ある職業の労働環境において必要とされる言語を扱う(EOP: English for Occupational Purposes)領域の2種類に区分して、その統合した形でESPをとらえるものが一般的である。この大きな区分をさらに特定な学術上の専門または職業によって分けていくことができる。EOPはEPP(English for Professional Purposes)とEVP (English for Vocational Purposes)に分類されるが、両者の大きな違いは、EPPは例えば、医学の分野の研究者が外国の雑誌などの文献を読まなければならない、あるいは学会発表をしなければならない場合であり、EVPは、外交官ですぐに外国に赴任しその外国語を現実に使用しなければならない場合に準備されるプログラムである(Dudley-Evans and St. John, 1998:6)。〈文責 寺内一〉

[ ESPの歴史 ]

ESPは、1960年代に当時英語教育の主流であった文学的伝統に対する反動が次第に高まり、「学習者自身の目標や現実に即したコースを立案し、教授法を考える」といった、より実用的な観点が主張されたことに始まる。理工系英語EST:Englishfor Sciences and Technology)研究がESPの第1歩であり、専門分野別に英語の言語的特徴が記述されるようになった。当時ESPはESTの同義語としてとらえられていたという(橋内、1995)。

  その後ESP自身発展をとげるが、Dudley-Evans and St. John(1998)はESPをレジスター分析時代(1960年代)、レトリック・ディスコース分析時代(1970年代)、スキル上の分析時代(1970年代後半−1980年代前半)、ニーズ分析時代(1970年代後半−1980年代初頭)の4つの時代に区分している。さらに、1990年代以降は、先述のディスコース・コミュニティ時代といえる。特にESPの領域でニーズ分析から発展した「ジャンル分析」は大変重要である。その特徴はコミュニケーション上の特徴だけではなく、コミュニケーション上の「目的」をも考慮するからである。例えば、テクストそれ自体だけではなく、テクストがある特定の環境および「ディスコース・コミュニティ」全体において果たす社会言語学的な役割を考察する。コンピューターを基本にした「コーパス」の利用と「ジャンル分析」の考え方の発展で、テクストの談話形体を分析することが容易になり、その結果ESP初期の「レジスター分析」の結果を再定義することも可能になった。 〈文責 寺内一〉


[ ESP関係参考書籍(メンバー著書)]

・基本書(日本語)
深山晶子(編)野口ジュディー(総監修)寺内一・笹島茂・神前陽子(監修)(2000)

『ESPの理論と実践:これで日本の英語教育が変わる』三修社

・法学関係国内出版(英語)

寺内一,  English for Academic Legal Purposes in Japan (2001)  リーベル出版

・新書(英語)

Orr, Thomas, ESP: Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series, TESOL Press, (2002)


[ ELT/ESP関係専門誌 ]

nglish for Specific Purposes   Pergamon Press.

http://www.elsevier.nl/

Journal of English for Academic Purposes.

http://www.elsevier.nl/

World Englishes       Blackwell Publishers

http://www.blackwellpublishers.co.uk/online

Journal of Sociolinguistics

http://www.blackwellpublishers.co.uk/online

Languege Learning

http://www.blackwellpublishers.co.uk/asp/journal.asp?ref=0023-8333

Written Communication  SAGE Publications, Ltd.

   http://www.sagepub.co.uk/

Text

http://www.degruyter.de/

 

Discourse & Society.  SAGE Publications Ltd.

      http://www.sagepub.co.uk/

Discourse Studies. SAGE Publications Ltd.

        http://www.sagepub.co.uk/ 

ELT Journal Oxford University Press

http://www3.oup.co.uk/eltj/

 

Applied Linguistics

 http://www.oup.co.uk/jnls/list/applij/

TESOL Quarterly 

http://www.tesol.org/

 

[ ESPの文献 ]

情報提供:

1.ESP Basics                                                         寺内一

2.Social construction  &  New perspective on ESP     野口ジュデイー

3.Contrastive Genre Analysis EMP                           渡邉容子  

 

1.ESP Basics

  Askehave, I. and Swales, J. M. (2001) Genre identification and communicative purpose: A problem and a possible solution. Applied Linguistics 22/2:195-212.

 Bargiela-Chiappini, F. and Nickerson, C. (1999) Writing business: Genres, media and discourses. London and New York: Longman.

Berkenkotter, C., & Huckin, T. N. (1995) Genre Knowledge in Disciplinary Communication: Cognition/Culture/ Power. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Berkenkotter, C., Huckin, T. N., & Ackerman, J. (1991). Social context and socially constructed texts: The initiation of a graduate student into a writing research community. In C. Bazerman & J. Paradis (Eds.), Textual dynamics in the professions (pp. 191-215). Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.

 Bhatia, V. K. (1993) Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings. London and New York: Longman. 

Bizzell, P. (1992). Academic discourse and critical consciousness. Pittsburgh and London: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Bloor, M. and T. Bloor, (1986) “Languages for Specific Purposes: Practice and Theory”,CLCS Occasional Paper,  No 19, Dublin: Trinity College.

Douglas, D. (2000) Assessing languages for specific purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dudley-Evans & St. John, (1998) Developments in ESP: A multi-disciplinary approach.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gunnarsson, B.-L., Linell, P., and Nordberg, B. (1997) The construction of professional discourse. London and New York: Longman.

 Halliday, M.A.K. and Martin, J.R. (1993) Writing science: literacy and discursive power. London, Washington, D.C.: The Falmer Press.

Holden, S. (1977) English for Specific Purposes, Modern English Publications.

Hutchinson, T. and A. Waters, (1988) English for Specific Purposes: A Learning-Centred Approach.

Hyland, K. (2000) Disciplinary discourses: Social interactions in academic writing. Harlow: Longman.

Kennedy, C. and R. Bolitho, (1984) English for Specific Purposes. Basingstoke: Macmilan.

Johns, A. M., & Dudley-Evans, T. (1993). English for specific purposes:  International in scope, specific in purpose. In S. Silberstein (Eds.), State of the Art TESOL Essays:  Celebrating 25 Years of the Discipline (pp. 115-132).

Johns, A. M. (1997). Text, role, and context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 Leckie-Tarry, H. (1995) D. Birch (ed.) Language and context: A functional linguistic theory of register. London and New York: Pinter.

 Martin, J.R. and Veel, R.(Eds.) (1998) Reading science: Critical and functional perspectives on discourses of science. London and New York: Routledge.

McDonough, J. (1984) ESP in Perspective: A Practical Guide. London and Glasgow: Collins ELT.

McDonough, J. and C. Shaw, (1988) “Topic in English for Specific Purposes”, University of Essex, Department of Language and Linguistics Occasional Papers, No 31.

Mackay, R. and A Mountford, (1977) English for Specific Purposes, Harlow: Longman.

Myers, G. (1990). Writing Biology: Texts in the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.

 Robinson, P. (1991) ESP Today: A Practitioner’s Guide, Prentice Hall.

 Swales, J. (1985) Episodes in ESP, Oxford: Pergamon Press.

 Swales, J and H. Mustafa, (1984) English for Specific Purposes in the Arab World, Birmingham: Language Studies Unit, Aston University, Oxford University Press.

Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

 Swales, J., & Feak, C. B. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Swales, J. (1998). Other floors, other voices: A textography of a small university building. Mahwah, N J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Swales, J. & Feak, C. B. (2000) English in today's research world: A writing guide. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Terauchi, H. (2001) English for Academic Purposes. Tokyo: Liber Press.

Widdowson, H. G. (1983) Learning Purpose and Language Use, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Williams, R., J. Swales and J. Kirkman, (1984) Common Ground: Shared Interests in ESP and Communication Studies, Oxford: Pergamon Press.

 

2.Theme& Keywords: Social Construction & New Perspective on ESP

Allen, J.P.B. and Widdowson, H. (eds.) (1974 and later) English in focus series.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Barber, C.L. (1962).  Some measurable characteristics of modern scientific prose.  (In Swales, J. (ed.) (1985). Episodes in ESP. Oxford: Pergamon Institute of English.)

Barron, C., Bruce, N. and Nunan, D.  (2002).  Knowledge and discourse: Towards an ecology of language.  Harlow, England: Longman.

Bates, M. and Dudley-Evans, T.  (1976) Nucleus: General science.  London: Longman.

Bloor, M. (2002) The history of ESP: Theory and practice.  In H. Terauchi, S. Saito, and S. Sasajima (eds.), Annual Report of JACET-SIG on ESP (Headquarters) Vol. 4 (pp. 17-31).  Tokyo: JACET-SIG on ESP (Headquarters).

Doughty, C. and Williams, J. (eds.) (1998).  Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Douglas, D. (2000) Assessing languages for specific purposes.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dudley-Evans, T. (1997). Genre: how far can we, should we go?  World Englishes, 16,3:351-358.

Dudley-Evans, T. and St. John, M. (1998) Developments in English for specific purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Friere, P. (1985).  The politics of education.  South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey.

Gergen, K. J. (2001).  Social construction in context. London: Sage.

Gross, A. (1990) The rhetoric of science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ha, P.L. and Viete, R.  The growth of voice: Negotiating representation of self in research writing.  Presentation at Knowledge and Discourse:  Speculating on disciplinary futures, June 25-29, 2002, The University of Hong Kong.

Halliday, M.A.K. (1994) An introduction to functional grammar, 2nd ed.  London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M.A.K., MacIntosh, A., & Strevens, P.  (1964).  The linguistic sciences and language teaching.  London:  Longman.  (Cited in Bloor, M. (2002) The history of ESP: Theory and practice.  In H. Terauchi, S. Saito, and S. Sasajima (eds.), Annual Report of JACET-SIG on ESP (Headquarters) Vol. 4 (pp. 17-31).  Tokyo: JACET-SIG on ESP (Headquarters))

Halliday, M.A.K. and J.R. Martin (eds.) Writing science:  Literacy and discursive power (p. 124-132) London, Washington, D.C.: The Falmer Press.

Hunston, S.  (2002).  Corpora in applied lingusitics.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1984)  Interface. London: Longman.

Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. (1987) English for specific purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johns, T.  http://www.bham.ac.uk/johnstf/

Kress, G.  (1989).  History and language: towards a social account of linguistic change, Journal of Pragmatics, 13(3) 445-6. (Cited in Wodak 2001)

Lackstrom, J. E., Selinker, L., and Trimble, L. P.  (1972) Grammar and technical English.  English Teaching Forum. X, 5.  Reprinted in Swales, J. (1985)  Episodes in ESP.  Oxford: Pergamon.

Lemke, J.L. (1994).  Semiotics and the deconstruction of conceptual learning.  http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/education/jlemke/paperrs/jsalt.htm (originally published in J. Soc. for Accelerative Learning and Teaching, 1994).

Long, M. (1991).  Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology.  In K. de Bot, R. Ginsberg, and C. Kramsch (eds.) , Foreign lanugate research in cross-cultural perspective (pp. 39-52).  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  Cited in C. Doughty and J. Williams (eds.) (1998).  Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Long, M. and Robinson, P. (1998).  Focus on form: Theory, research, and practice.  In C. Doughty and J. Williams (eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martin, J.R. and Veel, R.(eds.) (1998) Reading science:  Critical and functional perspectives on discourses of science.  London and New York:  Routledge.

Munby, J. (1978).  Communicative syllabus design.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Myers, G. (1990a). Writing biology: Texts in the social construction of scientific knowledge. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Myers, G. (1990b). Making a discovery:  Narrative of split genes. In C. Nash (ed.), Narrative in culture:  The uses of storytelling in the sciences, philosophy, and literature (pp. 102-126). London and New York: Routledge.

Noguchi, J. (2001­) The science review article: An opportune genre in the construction of science.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Birmingham.

Swales, J. (ed.) (1985). Episodes in ESP. Oxford: Pergamon Institute of English.

Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre analysis:  English in academic and research ssettings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 

Swales, John (1997) English as Tyrannosaurus rex.  World Englishes, 16, 3:373-382.

Swales, J. (1998). Other floors, other voices: A textography of a small university building.  Mahwah, N J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Swales, J. and Feak, C.  (1994).  Academic writing for graduate students:  Essential Tasks and Skills.  Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Terauchi, H. (2000).  Current perspective on English for specific purpose in Japan.  Paper presented to 34th Annual Convention of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), Vancouver Canada.  (Cited in Bloor, M. (2002) The history of ESP: Theory and practice.  In H. Terauchi, S. Saito, and S. Sasajima (eds.), Annual Report of JACET-SIG on ESP (Headquarters) Vol. 4 (pp. 17-31).  Tokyo: JACET-SIG on ESP (Headquarters).

Terauchi, H. (2001).  English for academic legal purposes in Japan.  Tokyo: Libre Press.

Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights.  http://www.troc.es/ciemen/mercator/dudl-gb.htm (accessed August 14, 2002)

van Dijk, T.   Multidisciplinary CDA:  a plea for diversity.  In In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 95-120).  London: Sage.

Walter, C. (1997).  IATEFL Newsletter.  Dec. 1997-Jan. 1998, p. 10.

Wodak, R.  (2001) What CDA is about—a summary of its history, important concepts and its developments.  In R. Wodak and M. Meyer (eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (pp. 1-13).  London: Sage.

Wodak, R. and Meyer, M.  (2001) Methods of critical discourse analysis.  London: Sage.

深山晶子, 野口ジュディー, 寺内一, 笹島茂, 神前陽子. 2000.『ESPの理論と実践--これで日本の英語教育が変わる』. 三修社.

 

3. Theme & Keywords: Contrastive Genre Analysis & EMP

Adam-Smith, D. 1984. Medical Discourse: aspects of authors’ comments. The ESP Journal, 3: 25-36.

Anthony, L. 1999. Writing Research Article Introductions in Software Engineering: How Accurate is a Standard Model? IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION, 42/1:38-46.

Bazerman, C. 1988. Shaping Written Knowledge. The Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Bazerman, C. 1989. Shaping Written Knowledge. Wisconsin:  University of Wisconsin Press.

Bazerman, C.2001. Nuclear Information One Rhetorical Moment in the Construction of the Information Age.  Written Communication, 18/3:259-295.

Berkenkotter, C. and Huckin, T. 1993. Rethinking Genre From a Sociocognitive Perspective, Written Communication, 10(4): 475-509.

Berkenkotter, C. and Huckin, T. 1995. Genre Knowledge in Disciplinary Communication: Cognition/Culture/Power. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bhatia, V.K.  1993. Analysing Genre,  London: Longman.

Bhatia, V.K. 1997a. Introduction: Genre analysis and world Englishes, World Englishes, 16(3): 313-319.

Bhatia, V. K. 1997b. The Power and politics of genre, World Englishes, 16(3): 359-371.

Berkenkotter, C. & Huckin, T. 1995. Genre Knowledge in Disciplinary Communication: Cognition/Culture/Power. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Centra Revno Medicina. 1999. http://login.jamas.gr.jp/enter.html.

Collins Cobuild Pocket Dictionary. 1996. London: HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.

Connor, U. 1996. Contrastive Rhetoric Cross-cultural Aspects of second-language Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Claiborne, G.D. 1998. Japanese and American Rhetoric; A Contrastive Study. San Francisco: International Scholars Publications.

Day, R. A. 1998. How to write and publish a scientific paper. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dudley-Evans, A. 1994. Genre analysis: an approach to text analysis for ESP. In M. Coulthard (Ed.). Advances in Written Text Analysis. London: Routledge.

Dudley-Evans, T. and St John, M. 1998. Developments in English for Specific Purposes A multi-disciplinary approach.  Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Faden, R. & Beauchamp, T. 1988. A History and Theory of Informed Consent, 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Flowerdew, J. 1994. Academic Listening Research perspectives, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Flowerdew, J. 2000. Discourse Community, Legitimate Peripheral Participation, and the Nonnative-English-Speaking Scholar. TEASOL Quarterly, 34/1:127-50.

Fujikawa, Y. 1934. Clio Medica; Japanese Medicine. . 39- 62.translated from German into English by John Ruhrah. London: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc.

Fredrickson, K. & Swales, J. 1992. Competition and Discourse Community: Introduction from Nyvenska studier, Text and Talk in Professional Context, Association suedoise de linguisique appliquee (ASLA).

Hayashi, D., Hayashi, S. Morioka, K. 1976.  Process of Composition, In Gendai Sakubun Koza 4 (Cotemporary Composition Seminar 4) Tokyo: Meiji-Shoin Publishing Inc.

Hinds, J. 1983. Contrastive rhetoric: Japanese and English, Text 3/2: 183-95.

Hinds, J. 1987. Reader Versus Writer Responsibility: A New Typology, In Writing Across Langauges: Analysis of L2 Text, edited by U. Connor and R.B. Kaplan, 141-52, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Inc.

Hopkins, A. and Dudley-Evans, T. 1988. A Genre-based Investigation of the Discussion Sections in Articles and Dissertations. English for Specific Purposes, 7; 113-21.

Hozayen, G. 1994. A Study of the Discussion Section of the Medical Research Article: A Genre Based Approach to Text Analysis. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Birmingham, UK.

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Jacoby, S. 1987. References to other researchers in literary research articles. ELR Journal, 1:33-78.

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Kenkyusha’s English-Japanese Dictionary for the General Reader. 1999. 2nd Edition. Tokyo: Kenkyusha.

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